The UVX storage ring is a second-generation 1.37 GeV synchrotron light source. The injection system includes a 120 MeV linear accelerator and a 500 MeV booster synchrotron. The machine operates in decay mode and most of the beam lines are based on dipole magnets.
Two RF stations are used to supply energy for the electron beam, each station including a single cell room temperature accelerating cavity and a 50 kW solid state amplifier operating at 476 MHz. The storage ring is housed in a temperature controlled tunnel and feedback systems are used to keep the beam orbit stable during the user shifts. Two diagnostics beam lines are used to monitor the beam.
The UVX light source has a 6-fold symmetry DBA lattice.The magnetic lattice includes 12 1.67 T dipoles, 36 quadrupoles and 18 sextupoles. There are 6 straight sections of 2.95 m, 4 of them available for insertion devices, 3 of which are currently occupied with an EPU50 undulator, a 4T SCW60 superconducting wiggler and a 2T W80 hybrid wiggler. The machine is about 93 m long and the harmonic number is 148. A set of 18 horizontal and 24 vertical steering magnets is used by a 3 kHz fast orbit feedback system to keep the beam orbit within tolerances during the whole user beam shift.
The booster is a 2-fold symmetry racetrack synchrotron. The magnetic lattice includes 12 dipoles in two 180° FODO cell based achromatic arcs. The circumference of the booster is about one third that of the main ring and it operates at 0.2 Hz. The booster RF system includes a single cell cavity and a 2 kW solid state amplifier working at 476 MHz.
Considering the two exits of each 1.67 T dipole, at 4° and 15°, the 6-fold symmetry of the lattice results in four types of radiation source according to the size and divergence of the synchrotron beam.
|Source||Size (FWHM*) [mm]||Divergence (FWHM*) [mrad]|
|Dipole (any) at 15°||0.87 x 0.17||1.9 x 0.05|
|Dipole (even) at 4°||0.92 x 0.15||3.0 x 0.05|
|Dipole (odd) at 4°||1.10 x 0.20||0.9 x 0.05|
|Straight Section||3.86 x 0.04||0.2 x 0.06|
The UVX synchrotron had up to 20 beamlines installed.
14 beamlines are based on the 1.67 T bending magnets of the storage ring. Six of them are at the 15° exit of the dipoles (XAFS2, XRF, XPD, SAXS1, XAFS1, IMX), six of them are at the 4° exit of even dipoles (SAXS2, SXS, DXAS, SGM, XRD1, XRD2) and two of them are at the 4° exit of odd dipoles (IR, TGM).
Other three beamlines are based on insertion devices: one based on the EPU50 undulator (PGM), one based on the 2T W80 hybrid wiggler (MX2), and one based on the 4T SCW60 superconducting wiggler (XDS).
Finally, two diagnostics beamlines (DFE, DFX) are used to monitor the beam and one dipole beamline (IBL) is used for the development and testing of instrumentation both for UVX and for the new Synchrotron Light Source Sirius.
The machine usually operates in multi-bunch mode although single-bunch shifts can be provided on demand. In the multi-bunch mode, the initial current is 250 mA, decaying to about 130 mA at the end of the shift. The initial beam lifetime at small vertical coupling is typically of the order of 12 hours. In the single-bunch mode, the initial current is about 9 mA.
Injection in the booster takes place at 120 MeV and its top energy is 500 MeV. About 50 injection cycles are necessary to fill in the empty UVX storage ring with 250 mA. Injection takes place at low energy and the storage ring has to be ramped up to the operation energy after the accumulation process. At the end of the user shift the remaining current is ramped down to injection energy and a low energy top up process takes place.
|Dipole Bending radius||2.735||m|
|Number of dipoles||12|
|Free straight sections||4|
|Straight section length||2.95||m|
|Natural emittance (@max energy)||100||nm.rad|
|Horizontal Betatron tune||5.27|
|Vertical Betatron tune||4.17|
|Synchrotron frequency (@max energy, Vrf = 500 kV)||25||kHz|
|Natural horizontal chromaticity||-7.8|
|Natural vertical chromaticity||-9.5|
|Momentum compaction factor||0.0083|
|Horizontal damping time (@max energy)||7.8||ms|
|Vertical damping time (@max energy)||7.5||ms|
|Synchrotron damping time (@max energy)||3.7||ms|
|Beam lifetime (with/without coupling correction)||26/17||h|
|Energy loss per turn in the dipoles||114||eV|
|Radiated power at the dipoles (@100 mA)||11.4||kW|
|Critical energy in the dipoles||2.08||keV|
|Dipole bending radius||1.026||m|
|Number of dipoles||12|
|Natural emittance (@max energy)||284||nm.rad|
|Horizontal Betatron tune||2.27|
|Vertical Betatron tune||1.12|
|Natural horizontal chromaticity||-2.1|
|Natural vertical chromaticity||-2.5|
|Momentum compaction factor||0.129|