The experimental station is the section of the beamline where the samples are analyzed. It is an isolated environment, equipped with radiological protection and precise control of temperature, humidity and particulates. It is the most dynamic part of a beamline, since each new experiment defines specific conditions for the conditioning of the samples (which may be in different physical states) and for the detection systems, aiming at the observation of different aspects of the interaction of the Synchrotron light with matter.
Positioning Systems and Sample Environments: These systems are used to position the samples in front of the light beam, often with submicron resolution. Such systems include furnaces and cryostats for temperature conditioning, devices for deformation or application of high pressure and electric and/or magnetic fields for in situ or in operando experiments.
Detectors: These devices quantitatively analyze the result of the interaction between the Synchrotron Light and the atoms of the material, by either diffraction, absorption or fluorescence. They include CCD-type area detectors or photon counters; diffractometers for positioning detectors; multi-channel scintillators, photodiodes, ionization chambers, etc.
The set of all these equipment allows a quantitative description of the types of atoms and molecules that constitute a given material, their chemical states, spatial organization, magnetic properties, etc.