PGM Beamline

The PGM (Planar Grating Monochromator) beamline is an experimental station dedicated to X-ray Spectroscopy in the soft X-rays (100 to 1500 eV) energy range, with applications to the study of the electronic, magnetic and structural properties of materials. It is well equipped with in-situ preparation facilities, making it particularly suited for surface science and thin films characterization. In addition to that, it is offers instrumentation for microscopy and photoemission on liquids.

PGM’s source is an elliptical polarization undulator with a 50 mm period (EPU50), which allows the photon polarization to be switched among linear horizontal, linear vertical or circular polarization. Its optics is based on a standard planar grating monochromator (PGM) equipped with a 1500 l/mm variable line spacing (VLS) diffraction grating. It serves two branches that operate independently but not simultaneously.

The beamline provides several experimental end stations to users. Systems are available for X-ray absorption and its variants (linear and circular dichroism), photoemission (XPS and ARPES), photoemission microscopy (PEEM), XPS on liquids and soft X-ray diffraction.

Furthermore, the beam line is equipped with a full featured in-situ preparation system, which allows the user to grow thin films and heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with thermal evaporators and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The samples can then be transferred under ultra-high vacuum conditions and be characterized by the techniques available at the beam line.


For more information on this beamline, contact us.


The following experimental techniques and setups are available to users in this beamline. To learn more about the techniques’ limitations and requirements (sample, environment, etc.) contact the beamline coordinator before submitting your proposal.



ElementTypePosition [m]Description
SourceInsertion DeviceInsertion Device U11A, APPLE II Elliptical Polarization Undulator (EPU50), built in-house, 50 mm period, 2.73 m long
M1Toroidal mirror13Au coated; water cooled
M2-GMonochromator15Au coated plane mirror and 1500 l/mm VLS grating
ESExit slit22-
M3a, M3bRefocussing toroidal mirrors29Au coated; used to switch between branches


Energy range [keV]103 – 1500 eVLinear horizontal polarization
Energy range [keV]192 – 1500 eVLinear vertical polarization
Energy range [keV]127 – 1500 eVCircular polarization
Resolving power [E/$ \Delta$E]1000 - 25000-
Beam size at sample [$ \rm mm^{2}$, FWHM]0.1 x 0.5 Vertical x horizontal
Flux at sample [ph/s]$ 10^{11}$ – $ 10^{13}$-


Superconducting magnet--$ \pm 4 \rm T$ along the beam direction. Sample temperature between 10 and 420 K Cryomagnetics Inc.
Electron Analyzer--150 mm radius hemispherical analyzer; CCD detector Energy resolution $ \approx$2.5 meV; Angular resolution $ \approx$0.1 degree; Sample manipulator with six degrees of freedom; Sample temperature between 15 and 420 K.Phoibos 150 SPECS
Photoelectron Microscopy--Fields of view from 100 down to $ 0.7 \mu \rm m$; Sample temperature from 90 up to 1400 K during measurements; Some possibilities for in-situ preparation (Ar sputtering and e-beam evaporation).P 90 SPECS
Electron Analyzer for liquids sample---Scienta
Diffractometer--4 degree of freedom diffractometerLNLS in-house development


All beamline controls are done through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), running on a PXI from National Instruments. The data acquisition is done using a Red Hat workstation with the Py4Syn, developed at LNLS by SOL group. CSS (Control System Studio) is used as a graphical interface to display and control the beamline devices. The systems from SPECS GmbH run on the manufacturer software.


Users are required to acknowledge the use of LNLS facilities in any publications and to inform the Laboratory about any publications, thesis and other published materials. Users must also cooperate by supplying this information upon request. 

Support text for acknowledgements:

This research used resources of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), an open national facility operated by the Brazilian Centre for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM) for the Brazilian Ministry for Science, Technology and Innovations (MCTI). The _ _ _ beamline staff is acknowledged for the assistance during the experiments.


Scientific publications produced with data obtained at the facilities of this beamline, and published in journals indexed by the Web of Science, are listed below.

Attention Users: Given the importance of the previous scientific results to the overall proposal evaluation process, users are strongly advised to check and update their publication record both at the SAU Online website and at the CNPEM library database. For the library, updates can be made by sending the full bibliographic data to the CNPEM library (biblioteca@cnpem.br). Publications are included in the database after being checked by the CNPEM librarians and the beamline coordinators.

Martins, F. H.; Paula, F. L. O.; Gomes, R. C.; Gomes, J. A.; Aquino, R.; Porcher, F.; Perzynski, R.; Depeyrot, J.. Local Structure Investigation of Core-Shell CoFe2O4@gamma-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles, Brazilian Journal of Physics, v.51, p. 47–59, 2021. DOI:10.1007/s13538-020-00829-9

Silva, L. F. da; Catto, A. C.; Bernardini, S.; Fiorido, T.; Palma, J. V. N. de ; Avansi Jr., W.; Aguir, K.; Bendahan, M.. BTEX gas sensor based on hematite microrhombuses, Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, v. 326, p. 128817, 2020. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2020.128817

Pereira, M. O.; Felix, V. de S. ; Oliveira-Carvalho, A. L.; Ferreira, D. S. R.; PImenta, A. R. ; Carvalho, C. S.; Silva, F. L. e; Pérez, C. A.; Galante, D.; Freitas, R. P. de. Investigating counterfeiting of an artwork by XRF, SEM-EDS, FTIR and synchrotron radiation induced MA-XRF at LNLS-BRAZIL, Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, v. 246, p. 118925, 2021. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2020.118925

Lopes, N. A. ; Mertins, O.; Pinilla, C. M. B. ; Brandelli, A.. Nisin induces lamellar to cubic liquid-crystalline transition in pectin and polygalacturonic acid liposomes, Food Hydrocolloids, v. 112, p.106320, 2021. DOI:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.106320

Coura, R, L. C. ; Andrade, A. B.; Monteiro, T. de J.; Novais, S. M. V.; Macedo, Z. S.; Valerio, M. E. G.. Photoluminescent properties of BaF2 scintillator-polystyrene composite films under vacuum ultraviolet radiation, Materials Research Bulletin, v.135, p. 111159, 2021. DOI:10.1016/j.materresbull.2020.111159

Moreno, H.; Cortes, J. A. ; Praxedes, F. M. ; Freitas, S. M. de; Rezende, M. V. dos S.; Simões, A. Z. ; Teixeira, V. C.; Ramírez, M. A.. Tunable photoluminescence of CaCu3Ti4O12 based ceramics modified with tungsten, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v.850, p. 156652, 2021. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.156652