s-SNOM microscope and incidence optics of the IR1 beamline.


The IR1 beamline is an endstation dedicated to infrared nanospectroscopy (nano-FTIR) in the range of mid-IR. Its main purpose is the analysis of chemical-optical properties of condensed matter in the nanoscale. In similar fashion to established infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the nano-FTIR allows for identification and characterization of a chemical compound by means of its vibrational response, however, with nanoscale spatial resolution. Moreover, nano-FTIR is a technique based on near-field optics and, therefore, can be applied to the optical analysis in the sub-diffractional regime of plasmonic and photonic materials.

To overcome the diffraction limit of light, this experimental endstation uses the broadband synchrotron IR beam extracted from the LNLS storage ring as the light source for the experiment Scattering Near-Field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM). In this experiment a metal coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip acts as an antenna for the light confinement at the its apex, creating a new source that no longer depends on the incident light wavelength but it is defined by the shape of the AFM probe, allowing for a spatial resolution of c.a. 25 nm.

The specifications of IR1 beamline of LNLS allows for multidisciplinary studies in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, in particular those studies in which the local chemical information is the central point in the research.

Potential applications are: Opto-electronics and vibrational properties of 2D materials, chemical analysis of sub-micron molecular domains in polymer blends, nano-drugs delivery, single cell chemistry, vibrational analysis of archeological micro-artefacts, new nanostructured materials for energy harvesting and conversion.


The IR1 beamline is exclusively dedicated to the Scattering Near Field Optical Microscopy technique (s-SNOM) which associates infrared microscopy (μ-FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). To learn more about the techniques’ limitations and requirements (sample, environment, etc.) contact the beamline coordinator before submitting your proposal.


scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) is a nanoscopy technique which combines Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and optics for producing a tip-enhanced optical or infrared (IR) probe with spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of light. In the case of the IR1 beamline, the broadband synchrotron IR beam is focused on a metallic AFM tip (nano-antenna) generating a broadband source smaller than 40 nm. The interaction of the IR nano-source with the sample surface yields broadband images (scanning mode) or 40 nm pixel point spectrum.

Recent publications:

B. Pollard et al. (2016). Infrared Vibrational Nanospectroscopy by Self-Referenced Interferometry. Nano Letters, vol. 16, 55–61. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02730

I. Barcelos et al. (2015). Graphene/h-BN Plasmon-phonon coupling and plasmon delocalization observed by infrared nano-spectroscopy. Nanoscale, vol.7, 11620–11625. doi: 10.1039/C5NR01056J

T. Moreno et al. (2013). Optical layouts for large infrared beamline opening angles. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 425(14), 142003. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/425/14/142003




ElementTypePosition [m]Description
SOURCEBending Magnet0.0Bending Magnet D03 exit A (4°), 1.67 T, 30 mrad x 80 mrad
M1Plane, 6 mm slot2.5Gold coated, aluminum substrate
M2Tangential cone-shaped3.1Gold coated, aluminum substrate
M3Tangential cylinder3.7Gold coated, aluminum substrate
CVDDiamond window7.020 mm diameter by 500 $ \mu \rm m$ diamond window by Chemical Vapor Deposition
M4Tangential cylinder7.5Gold coated, aluminum substrate
M5Tangential cylinder7.9Gold coated, aluminum substrate


Energy range [ $ \rm cm^{-1}$ ]3000 - 700Broadband radiation limited by beamsplitter transmission and detector sensitivity
Energy resolution [ $ \rm cm^{-1}$ ]Up to 3.3Limitted by the interferometer travel
Beam size at sample [nm, FWHM]< 40 nmNear-field spot defined by the size of the s-SNOM tip
Flux at first optical element [Phot/s/0.1%bw]$ 2.0 \times 10^{13}$at 1000 $ \rm cm^{-1}$ (10 $ \mu \rm m$)
AFM scanning stage (maximum travel) [ $ \mu \rm m$ ]$ \pm$45-
AFM scanning stage minimum step [nm]5-


s-SNOMNear-field Optical MicroscopeNeaSnom-NeaSpec
MCT DetectorSingle element Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) KLD-0.1-J1208L750 $ \rm cm^{-1}$ to 3000 $ \rm cm^{-1}$, 100 $ \mu \rm m$ element size, DC to 1 MHz BW, $ \rm LN_{2}$ cooledKolmar Technologies
MCT DetectorSingle element MCTIRA-20-00103650 $ \rm cm^{-1}$ to 3000 $ \rm cm^{-1}$, 50 $ \mu \rm m$ element size, 500 Hz to 2 MHz BW, $ \rm LN_{2}$ cooledInfrared Associates Inc.
Si DetectorSingle element Silicon detectorPDA36A-EC350 nm to 1100 nm, 3.6 mm x 3.6 mm element size, DC to 10 MHz BW , air cooledThorlabs
InGaAs Detector Single element Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) detector PDA10D-EC PDA10D-EC Thorlabs
Lock-in amplifier2 input channels digital lock-in amplifierHF2LIDC to 50 MHz, 210 MSa/s, USB 2.0 high-speed, 480 Mbit/sZurich Instruments
Visible laserHeNe laserHNL150L15 mW HeNe (633 nm) laserThorlabs


Data acquisition is performed directly in the native software of the NeaSnom microscope developed by Neaspec. S-SNOM image files are compatible with the free program Gwyddion (http://gwyddion.net) and point spectra, linescans and spectral images are postprocessed using Mathematica® routines developed by the IR1 team.


Users are required to acknowledge the use of LNLS facilities in any publications and to inform the Laboratory about any publications, thesis and other published materials. Users must also cooperate by supplying this information upon request. 

Support text for acknowledgements:

This research used resources of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), an open national facility operated by the Brazilian Centre for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM) for the Brazilian Ministry for Science, Technology, Innovations and Communications (MCTIC). The _ _ _ beamline staff is acknowledged for the assistance during the experiments.


Scattering Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM)

Keilmann, F. & Hillenbrand, R. Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip. Trans. A. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 362, 787–805 (2004).

Huth, F., Schnell, M., Wittborn, J., Ocelic, N. & Hillenbrand, R. Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source. Mater. 10, 352–6 (2011).

Huth, F. et al. Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution. Nano Lett. 12, 3973–8 (2012).

Muller, E. A., Pollard, B. & Raschke, M. B. Infrared Chemical Nano-Imaging: Accessing Structure, Coupling, and Dynamics on Molecular Length Scales. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1275–1284 (2015).

 Infrared Spectroscopy Espectroscopia de Infravermelho (FTIR)

Griffiths, P. R. & de Haseth, J. a. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry. Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistr and Its Applications (2007). doi:10.1002/047010631X

Smith, Brian C. “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.” CRC, Boca Raton, FL(1996).

Atomic Force Microscopy Microscopia de Força Atômica

Eaton, P. & West, P. Atomic Force Microscopy. (Oxford University Press, 2010). doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570454.001.0001


Scientific publications produced with data obtained at the facilities of this beamline, and published in journals indexed by the Web of Science, are listed below.

Attention Users: Given the importance of the previous scientific results to the overall proposal evaluation process, users are strongly advised to check and update their publication record both at the SAU Online website and at the CNPEM library database. For the library, updates can be made by sending the full bibliographic data to the CNPEM library (biblioteca@cnpem.br). Publications are included in the database after being checked by the CNPEM librarians and the beamline coordinators.


 IR1   XRD2 

 López, E. O.; Rossi, An.L.; Bernardo, P. L.; Freitas, R. O.; Mello, A.; Rossi, A. M.. Multiscale connections between morphology and chemistry in crystalline, zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanofilms designed for biomedical applications, Ceramics International, v. 45, n. 1, p. 793-804, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.09.246


 Maia, F. C. B.; O’Callahan, B. T. ; Cadore, A. R.; Barcelos, I. D.; Campos, L. C.; Watanabe, K. ; Taniguchi, T.; Deneke, C.; Belyanin, A. ; Raschke, M.; Freitas, R. O.. Anisotropic Flow Control and Gate Modulation of Hybrid Phonon-Polaritons, Nano Letters, v. 19, n. 2, p. 708-719, 2019. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03732


 Freitas, R. O.; Deneke, C.; Maia, F. C. B.; Medeiros, H. G.; Moreno, T.; Dumas, P.; Petroff, Y. P.; Westfahl Jr., H.. Low-aberration beamline optics for synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy, Optics Express, v. 26, n. 9, p.11238-11249, 2018. DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.011238


 Colucci, R.; Quadros, M. H.; Feres, F. H. ; Maia, F. C. B.; Vicente, F. S.; Faria, G. C.; Santos, L. F.; Gozzi, G.. Cross-linked PEDOT: PSS as an alternative for low-cost solution-processed electronic devices, Synthetic Metals, v. 241, p. 47-53, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2018.04.002


 Barcelos, I. D.; Cadore, A. R.; Alencar, A. B.; Maia, F. C. B.; Mania, E. ; Oliveira, R. F.; Bof Bufon, C. C.; Malachias, A.; Freitas, R. O.; Moreira, R. L.; Chacham, H.. Infrared Fingerprints of Natural 2D Talc and Plasmon-Phonon Coupling in Graphene-Talc Heterostructures, ACS Photonics, v. 5, n. 5, p. 1912-1918, 2018. DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b01017


 Pereira, L.; Flores-Borges, D. N. A.; Bittencourt, P. R. L. ; Mayer, J. L. S.; Kiyota, E.; Araújo, P.; Jansen, S. ; Freitas, R. O.; Mazzafera, P.. Infrared Nanospectroscopy Reveals the Chemical Nature of Pit Membranes in Water-Conducting Cells of the Plant Xylem, Plant Physiology, v. 177, n. 4, p. 1629-1638, 2018. DOI: 10.1104/pp.18.00138




Microscópio s-SNOM e óptica de incidência da Linha de Luz IR1.

s-SNOM microscope and incidence optics of the IR1 beamline.

IR1: Estação Experimental / Experimental Station

Estação experimental de nanoespectroscopia no Infravermelho.

IR nanospectrocopy experimental station.

IR1: Mesas de Controle / Control Desks

Mesas de controle experimental da linha de luz e estações de trabalho para processamento de dados para usuários.

Beamline experiment control desks and data processing workstations for users.

IR1: Bancada / Workbench

Bancada para preparação de amostras para usuários da Linha de Luz IR1.

Sample preparation bench for users of the IR1 beamline.