# Ema

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Ema, Rhea americana, é uma ave que não voa, nativa da América do Sul. (Foto: Nino Barbieri)

# OVERVIEW

The EMA  (Extreme condition x-ray Methods of Analysis) beamline is thought to make a difference where a high brilliance (high flux of up to $1 \times 10^{14}$ photons/sec with beamsize down to 0.1×0.1 $\mu \rm m^{2}$) is essential, which is the case for extreme pressures that require small focus and time-resolved that require high photon flux.

This beamline is proposed to have two experimental hutches to cover most of the extreme condition techniques today employed at synchrotron laboratories worldwide. In addition to the hutches, support laboratories will be strongly linked and supportive to the experiments at the beamline, covering high pressure instrumentations using diamond anvil cells and pump-and-probe requirements for ultrafast and high power lasers.

While it was initially proposed (in 2012) as a general microfocusing beamline for x-ray spectroscopy studies of a plethora of materials, it has since then been optimized and focused to perform experiments under extreme conditions environments (including high pressure, temperature and magnetic field) and methods (x-ray spectroscopy, diffraction, inelastic scattering, time-resolved pump-and-probe, etc) for material science studies.

More information on the beamline can be checked at the slide presentation available here.

# LAYOUT & OPTICAL ELEMENTS

ElementTypePosition [m]Description
SourceUndulator0.0In vacuum undulator, 19 mm period
MonochromatorDCM28.5Vertical bounce, fixed exit. Si 111 and Si 220
¼ wave platePhase plate31Phase retarder for controlling the polarization
HRMMirrors33.3Harmonic rejection mirror pair. Si, Rh, Pt stripes
KB1Mirrors44.5Bendable vertical and horizontal focusing mirrors for the first experimental hutch
KB2Mirrors96.0Fixed curvature bent vertical and horizontal focusing mirrors for the second hutch

# PARAMETERS

ParameterValueCondition
Energy range (keV)2.7 - 30
Energy resolution ($latex \Delta$E/E)$10^{-4}$ - $10^{-5}$
Harmonic content< $10^{-5}$
Energy ScanningYes
Beam Sizes80x80 $\rm nm^{2}$ to 10x10 $\rm \mu m^{2}$Dependent of the position
Beam divergences2 $\rm mrad$ to 20 $\rm \mu rad$Dependent of the position
Imaging ModesCDI, scanning
Sample EnvironmentsPressures of up to 800 GPa Temperatures from 2 K to 8000 K; Static magnetic fields up to 11 TUnder preliminary consideration: temperatures as low as 0.5 K and as high as 105 K; pulsed magnetic fields of up to 80 T

## EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

The following techniques shall be covered at this beamline:

• Magnetic spectroscopy (XMCD) and scattering (XRMS) under high pressure and low temperature, for probing of element specific magnetism under pressure;
• Extreme pressures and temperatures XRD and XAS experiments, for probing of crystallographic information as a function of pressure/temperature using the smallest focused beamsize, very small diamond cutlet anvils and high power lasers;
• Medium energy resolution X-ray Emission spectroscopy (XES) coupled to pump and probe experiments, for probing of chemical phenomena with picosecond time resolution;
• Medium energy resolution X-ray Raman Scattering (X-ray inelastic scattering), for probing light elements in materials subjected to high pressures and/or temperatures;
• Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI), for probing of strains with nanometer resolution in materials subjected to high temperature and/or pressure.