CARNAÚBA (Coherent X-rAy NAnoprobe BeAmline) is the longest beamline of the Sirius with approximately 145 meters between the light source and the sample environment, which allows a high optical demagnification and to reach nanometric spatial resolutions. It has two endstation: TARUMÃ (Tender-to-hard X-ray for sub-micro analysis), with submicrometric beam size and variable sample environment; and the SAPOTI (Scanning Analysis by Ptycho for Tomographic Imaging) in which the beam size reaches 30 nm and the sample environment is cryogenic and in utra-high vacuum.
The CARNAÚBA beamline covers the energy range from 2.05 to 15 keV and it comprises multiple techniques based on X-ray absorption, scattering and emission. In this beamline it is possible to access the K edges of light elements, such as phosphorus and sulfur, which are quite relevant for Life and Environmental Sciences and also L-edges of elements of technological importance, such as the Lanthanoids. In this beamline it is possible to study many types of nano-structured materials and hierarchically ordered ones through 2D and 3D images using as contrast X-ray absorption, emission, and diffraction, as well as optical emission. Some of the main areas which will benefit from these techniques are: Materials Science (catalysts, magnetism, semiconductors, electrochemistry, photonics); Nanotechnology (health, information); Environmental Sciences (geosciences, materials under extreme pressure, petrology); Cultural Heritage (arts, archeology and paleontology) and Life sciences (medical and biological applications).
The optical design of this beamline takes advantage of the Sirius low emittance, allowing the beam at the sample to be at the same time nanometric and of relative low divergence, with a large depth of focus. The later is an important aspect for the phase contrast diffraction technique.